Laws of Football – Summary of the Basic Rules

The following is a very simple summary of the key laws of the game of football, hopefully written in an easy-to-understand way.

The Pitch

The playing area (‘pitch’) must be rectangular and be between 90m (100yds) and 120m (130yds) long and between 45m (50yds) and 90m (100yds) wide. The end lines are called goal lines and the side lines are called touch lines.

The Ball

The ball must be spherical with a circumference of between 68cm (27in) and 70cm (28in) and a weight between 410gm (14oz) and 450gm (16oz).

Teams / Players

A match (‘game’) consists of 2 teams, each with no more than 11 players – including a goalkeeper (‘goalie’) – and no less than 7 players.

Player’s Kit

Basic kit consists of a shirt, shorts, socks, shinguards and boots/shoes. Goalkeepers must wear colours different from other players – including their own side – and match officials.

Match Officials

Each match is controlled by a referee supported by 2 assistant referees. He stops the game by means of a whistle for any infringement. He also acts as timekeeper. The assistant referees indicate by flag when the ball is out of play. They also flag when they see infringements that the referee may not have seen.

Game Duration

A game consists of 2 halves of 45 minutes each, with an interval (half-time) of a maximum of 15 minutes. The referee may add on additional time at the end of each half to compensate for time lost through injuries, substitutions and players’ deliberate ‘time-wasting.’

Starting the Game

A coin is tossed to decide which team gets to choose which goal to attack. The losing team gets to take the kick-off to start the game. The teams change ends for the second half. A kick-off is also used after a goal is scored.

Ball Out of Play

A ball is out of play (‘out’) when the whole ball has crossed the goal line or touch line.


A goal has been scored when the whole ball has crossed the goal-line between the goal-posts. The team scoring the most goals wins. If both teams score the same number of goals – or neither team scores – the game is drawn.

Offside Rule

A player is penalized for offside if at the instant the ball was played by a team mate, the player was actively involved in the play and did not have 2 opposing players between him/her and the opposition’s goal line. The player is not in an offside position if he/she is in his/her own half, or, is level with the second last opponent, or, receives the ball from a goal kick, corner kick or throw-in. An indirect free kick is awarded for offside.

Free Kicks and Penalty Kicks

There are ‘direct’ and ‘indirect’ free kicks. These are just some of the offences for which a direct free kick is awarded:- hitting, kicking; tripping; pushing; deliberate hand ball; etc. Similarly for an indirect free kick we have:- dangerous play; impeding an opponent (‘obstruction’); a goalie holding the ball for more than 6 seconds; a goalie handling the ball after it has been passed to him by a team mate, etc.

At the subsequent free kick, all opposition players must be a minimum of 9.15m (10yds) from where the ball is placed. A penalty kick is awarded for any infringement which takes place inside the penalty area for which a direct free kick would normally have been awarded if it had occurred outside the area.

Goal Kicks

Awarded to the defending team when the whole of the ball crosses the defending team’s goal line – not between the goal posts because that is a goal – after having been last touched by an attacking player.

Corner Kicks

Awarded to the attacking team when the whole of the ball crosses the defending team’s goal line – not between the goal posts because that is a goal – after having been last touched by a defending player.


Awarded to a team when the whole ball crosses a touch line after having been touched by a member of the opposing team.

The above should be sufficient for folks, new to football / soccer, to be able to follow and enjoy this fabulous game. Good spectating!

Lemon Laws for Used Cars are Just Around the Corner

In 1982, California became the first state to pass an automobile “lemon law” which gave owners of defective cars the opportunity to seek a replacement or a refund for a new car that had a defect that could not be repaired in a reasonable amount of time. This law proved so popular that other states soon followed suit. Less than twenty five years later, all fifty states have some sort of lemon law on their books. California may take the lead again in the protection of auto buyers as the state Assembly recently passed a “bill of rights” designed to protect buyers of used cars.

This bill, which has not been signed into law, would protect buyers of used cars from deceptive lending practices, sales of lemon-law buyback vehicles, and vehicles with frame damage. Buyers would also be allowed three days in which to cancel the deal if they changed their mind after the purchase.

This bill may or may not become law, but it outlines the need for laws that cover sales of used cars as well as new ones. While all states have a lemon law that covers the sale of defective new vehicles, few states have laws that protect buyers of used vehicles. As a result, many buyers have become victims of deceptive practices such as rolling back a vehicle’s odometer to show fewer miles, reselling cars that have previously been bought back by manufacturers as lemons and selling wrecked cars that have been repaired without noting their accident history. In addition, many used car dealers sell cars using deceptive financing terms that can add hundreds or thousands of dollars to the cost of the vehicle, often without the buyer’s knowledge.

If this bill does become law in California, expect other states to follow, just as they did with lemon laws. Consumer protection benefits everyone, and laws protecting buyers of used cars are just around the corner.

The Laws of the Ego

We live in a world where laws are constantly being created or re-written. Each one of these laws is meant to make the madness in this world conform so that we can feel safe. Most would agree it is not having that effect as we still live in fear about what will happen. From A Course in Miracles (ACIM), there is an explanation as to why this is occurring. The ego has an operating system, or a set of laws, that are judgments running the status quo. Since all judgments are based in fear and guilt, which is chaos, these laws doom everything from the start.

First, let’s discuss the basic characteristics of the ego’s operating system. No matter which brand of ego you purchase, all of them are going to behave within these parameters since they are locked in place by the ego’s laws. Regular maintenance is needed and is nothing more than repeated judgments which keep the chaos in perfect working condition. The ego has needs. God has no needs.

Students of ACIM know the Course says that the error, or separation, never occurred and was just a “tiny mad idea.” Knowing what the ego has done with that mad idea is the laws of the ego, also known as the Laws of Chaos.

Rule #1 – Law of Ego: The ego gives to get because you need salvation, denied by God, and now it must come from others. This is a hidden agenda in everything the ego does because it denies the Law of Heaven that giving and receiving are the same.

Rule #2 – Law of Death: The ego views sin as punishable by death and by dying, your sins are gone and you are free from God’s vengeance. This is the ego’s solution to the Law of Creation about ideas not leaving their source. Separation means leaving source and death is salvation from that sin.

Rule #3 – Law of Division: The ego says separation occurred and using the above two rules, it always attacks (gives to get and death) so you don’t notice you are simply attacking yourself and separation is a lie. This one also denies the Law of Creation that your creations are like you, a part of you and therefore, you love them as yourself.

The above rules of the ego are the characteristics within the operating system, or The Laws of Chaos. The ego wrong mind uses this platform within its laws beginning with the metaphysical split (“tiny mad idea” or idea of separation) completely out into conscious mind thoughts and behaviors. These laws perfectly describe all aspects of the split mind and if suddenly abolished, the idea of separation would end immediately. This would be the end of this Universe which exists only in the split mind and is held together by judgments using the Laws of Chaos.

Law of Chaos #1:

The truth is different for everyone. Because of separateness, we all have different thoughts. If I’m not you, I can have my own opinion which the ego values very highly.

Specialness comes from this law. Different truths make way for another person, or thing, to be more valued over others. Even an idea can be more true or believable than another. Different also means difficulty because there is no sameness. There is an order of difficultly in illusions as one can be harder than the next and, therefore, needs to be treated with a different truth. This always leaves you guessing, worried, frustrated and anxious over which truth to choose.

The ego’s rule about “giving to get” shows itself very well here. You will only give to another you believe has the correct truth for you, or what you want to get. If ego doesn’t like another version of the truth, it won’t give anything.

Law of Chaos #2:

The sin of separation was committed. The ego uses guilt for having committed this sin against God. Next is fear of Him because now, He’ll come after you for revenge. Your truth (Law of Chaos #1) is now different from God’s truth, i.e., in the ego’s view, your “will” is now different from God’s Will.

“Will” is by definition intention, desire, wants and how you initiate actions (creation). The ego is saying that by separation, you want (“will”) its judgment of death as salvation. This violates the Law of Mind that your mind is still with God and the Law of Creation that you cannot separate from what is like you.

The ego’s death and division rules are obvious: All things are considered a sin, condemned and given irrevocable sentences to die. It’s a no-win scenario. You get separation or division from God and all brothers through death; but, this will save you.

Law of Chaos #3:

This law is based on the belief in the first two laws being correct (you did separate and have a different truth). This is the ego’s attempt to make the Will of God into a myth because this makes your “will” different from God’s Will. In the ego’s one or the other system, it is where the truth is hidden.

Either you or God must now be mistaken. Feeling conflicted comes from wondering who is lying. Yet if God is who He is, and He’s mistaken, then you have to hate Him. Hating is fearing. Further conflict is inevitable because now you’re backed in corner, and anything feeling cornered will attack. You justify attack to take back what you want because now, it’s all beyond God’s help. Feeling alone and depressed stem from this law.

Law of Chaos #4:

The ego values only what it can take. Another person’s loss is your gain. You cannot believe in this law unless you’ve bought into the first three laws, plus the rules of the ego. Truths are different so something is more valuable, you need it for salvation, and you must get it at all costs before the punishment of death so death will be your redemption. You have to acquire (take) many truths (things, ideas, etc.).

You keep things hidden (things, fears, agendas, etc.) because you value them and want to protect them. In a one or the other system, it is only a question of when someone comes to take them from you because they place more value on yours. Lack also comes from here as you can never have enough because someone else has something better or different that might save you. The ego has needs.

Law of Chaos #5:

There is a substitute for love. Yes, you read that correct. This is the ego’s cure for all your pain, sacrifice and what makes the chaos seem sane. The substitute for love is the ego’s salvation as part of its death rule. You have to attack and take back what is rightfully yours (denied by God) from your brothers so that when you die, you are saved.

Chaotic judgments do not reconcile the inaccuracies of judgments. It ignores them and makes more judgments. Here’s an example: You attack brothers because: (1) the fear of God from Him being mistaken in Law of Chaos #3 above; and (2) part of the mind knows brothers are also God and so it fears them from the same Law of Chaos. Attacks simply fragment judgments and maintains the Laws of Chaos.

As you can see, the Laws of Chaos are basically lawlessness or the wild, wild west in action. There is no order to them, they are subject to immense fragmentation and they govern all illusions. That is why nothing is this world, no laws, protect or control or will ever make you feel safe. These Laws of Chaos began with the belief in sin as being real. Sin is a judgment against sameness. It produces a system where everything is different and unpredictable (chaotic). Then, judgments fragment and hide your brother, as yourself, from you to keep you stuck.

A Course in Miracles says your brother is you and that correction of the mind (forgiveness) is all that is required. Seeing another as a brother reverses the Laws of Chaos. You would not attack yourself if you knew them as yourself. It all begins with your choice to see another as a brother. This is choosing to see them without sin which ends chaos as it takes away the maintenance package of the operating system.

The Law of Allowing and the Law of Deliberate Creation

The Law of Allowing
The Law of Allowing enables us to powerfully and passionately permit our focus with the Law of Attraction to become a reality. We were born into an environment where we all have choices. This is the beauty in our world which gives each of us the opportunity to find our passion, our calling. You are here to work on yourself. You are perfect in every way and can be happy with what you have created. If there are things you would prefer were different, then you can be thrilled to know that you can create that reality as well. It is a process of continual growth.

The Law of Allowing Others
Diversity creates a marvelous opportunity for growth. You are not here to change others. Accept that you can allow others to be as they are, to believe as they do. The only person you can effectively change is yourself. In changing the way you relate to others, you in effect change the way they relate to you because you have upset the balance in the way you interacted with them before. In accepting others as they are, you allow them to grow and to learn for themselves. The Law of Allowing loves diversity!

The Law of Allowing Yourself
Many successful businesses that are passed to the next generation slowly decline. The passion that built the company is not there unless those next in line are passionate about the work. If they are not, the successors take for granted what was given to them and the profits drop. So it is with our growth. Passion is the juice that makes it fun.

The Law of Allowing requires that you feel good. I was working as designer for a ladies wear company and I had a dream one night. The office I was in was identically to the one I went to every day with a couple of exceptions. Everything and everyone in the room was in black and white and there was a door in the corner that opened up to a glorious sight. Through the door I could see green fields, a beautiful flowing brook, deer, birds and butterflies all in living color. When I woke up the next morning I realized that the job and the people I worked with were sucking the life out of me. There was a lot of back biting and negativity in the workplace. It took me two minutes to decide to give my notice and look for other employment. My mood improved and I got excited about the opportunities that lay around the corner for me. Success is not measured in money if you lose yourself along the way.

The Law of Allowing Abundance
The Law of Attraction says that you attract those things and events in your life that correspond to your beliefs of worthiness and deserving. The Law of Deliberate Intent tells us that we are creating all time whether or not we believe this to be true and that we can deliberately choose what will enter our lives.

Once you understand these two laws you will want to work on Law of Allowing letting the abundance in. The trick here is to generate a feeling of well being or success that vibrates through out your body. Think about the feeling you get when you first fall in love, it courses through your body and the results are unmistakable. You glow with anticipation and excitement! By remembering a time when you felt incredible, you can recreate that feeling while anticipating the fun, joy and excitement of recognition you will achieve when you have reached your goal. The Law of Allowing makes your emotions work for you in a very beneficial way.

Imagine designing a life using the Law of Attraction and the Law of Allowing instead of taking what comes your way. What if, by simply changing the way your feel, you could create a miracle in your finances, your personal life, and your career? Would you be willing to take the time necessary to still your mind and really focus on what makes you happy and build that vibration so that you can feel it coming to you? I know it works.

Someone once told me, “Don’t try to get the big goal with the Law of Attraction, right away. Play with some little ones. It will build your confidence when you see this truly works!” I sat there in Starbucks mulling this over and though that most of the people coming in seemed very low key, no smiles. So I started to get the vibration, the buzz going and focused on the fact that the next person walking through the door would look at me and smile. A man walked in, looked straight at me, smiled and said, “Good morning.” What a rush! Ok, but that could be coincidence. I agree, it could be.

Then I decided that I would buy a scratch and win lotto ticket and that I would win a small amount… two dollars would be fine! First I had to get the buzz going. It’s a good thing you can do this quietly and no one can tell what you are doing or the other patrons in Starbucks would have thought I was off my rocker. Over to the corner store, I walked, vibrating all the way. If this works it could be powerful don’t you agree? I entered the store and looked at the tickets, picked one and laughed at myself for being so gullible. I started to scratch it and what do you know… I won two dollars. Now you are probably thinking, “What’s two dollars?” The amount is not what is important, the fact it worked is!

On my walk home I focused on feeling good, on letting the Law of Allowing work for me. “I want a customer to place an order”, I thought. I could see the order and the money and that vibration was strong. On opening my email, it was there, the order from a client who I hadn’t heard from for quite awhile. These three small incidents with the Law of Allowing, right in a row, indicate to me that we have far more power than we give ourselves credit for. We just need to tap into the universe, give ourselves permission to feel good on a daily basis and enjoy the success it brings. I know the Law of Allowing works. Are you willing to give it a try?